UGC NET December 2019-June 2020 Syllabus for Tourism Administration and Management

Code No. : 93

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UGC NET November Tourism Administration and Management Syllabus 2017

UGC NET Tourism Paper II and III ( Part – A & B ) :

Unit – I :

  • Tourist / Visitor / Traveller / Excursionist – definition and differentiation. Tourism recreation and leisure inter-relationship ( s ). Tourism components, Elements and infrastructure. Types and typologies of Tourism.
  • Emerging concepts : Eco / rural / agri. / farai / green / wilderness / country side / special interest tourism.
  • Tourism Trends : Growth and development over the years and factors responsible therein. Changing market-destination patterns, Traffic flows / receipt trends. Travel motivator and deterrents. Pull and Push forces in tourism.

Linkages and channels of distribution in Tourism :

Tourism Organisation / Institutions : Origin, Organisation and functions of WTO, PATA, IATA, ICAO, FHRAI, TAAI, IATO and UFTAA.

Unit – II :

  • Concept of resource, Attraction and product in tourism. Tourism products : typology and unique features.
  • Natural Tourism Resources in India : Existing use patterns vis – a – vis potential with relation to varied landforms ( mountains, deserts, beaches, coastal areas and Islands ), Water bodies and biotic wealth ( flora – fauna ).
  • Popular tourist destination for land based ( soft / hard trekking, ice skiing, mountaineering, desert safaris, car rallies, etc. ), water based ( rafting, kayaking, canoeing, surfing, water skiing, scuba / snuba diving ) and air based ( para – sailing, para – gliding, ballooning, hand – gliding and microlighting, etc ) tourist activities. Wildlife – Tourism and conservation related issues – Occurrence and distribution of popular wildlife species in India. Tourism in National parks, Wildlife sanctuaries and biosphere reserves ( case of Dachigham Corbett / Dudhwa / Kaziranga / Kanha / Gir / Ranthambor / Mudumalai / Sunderbans / Shivpuri / Manas / Nanda Devi / Valley of flowers reserves ). Tourism and nature conservation-Conflicts, Symbiosis and Synergy.
  • Cultural Tourism Resources in India : Indian Culture and society. Indian History – Ancient, Medieval and Modern.
  • Traditions, Customs and costumes : Life style and settlement patterns. Food habits and cuisine. Music, Musical instruments and Dance forms; Drawing and painting; Craftsmanship.
  • Religion / religious observances and important pilgrim destinations.
  • Architectural Heritage-Forts / palaces / other architectural marvels – Location and unique features.

Unit – III :

  • Accommodation : Concept, Types and Typologies, Linkages and Significance with relation to tourism.
  • Emerging dimensions of accommodation industry – Heritage hotels, Motels and resort properties. Time share establishments.
  • Hotel and Hoteliering : Origin, Growth and diversification. Classification, registration and gradation of hotels. Organisational structure, Functions and responsibilities of the various departments of a standard hotel / other catering outlets, viz., bars, restaurants, fast food centres. In flight catering.
  • Leading multinational hotel chains operating in India. Public sector in hoteliering business – Role, Contribution and Performance.
  • HRD perspective with special reference to India-Requirements, Training facilities, Constraints and Scope.
  • Fiscal and non-fiscal incentive available to hotel industry in India. Ethical, Legal and regulatory aspects.

Unit – IV :

  • Transportation : Dynamically Changing needs and means.
  • Landmarks in the development of transport sector and the consequent socio – economic, Cultural and environmental implications. Tourism transport system.
  • Airlines Transportation : The Airlines Industry-Origin and Growth. Organisation of Air Transport Industry in International context. Scheduled and non – scheduled Airlines services; Air taxis. Multinational Air Transport Regulations-Nature, Significance and Limitations. Role of LATA, ICAO and other agencies. Bermuda Convention.
  • Air Transport Industry in India – DGCA and other key players; Regulatory Framework; Air Corporation Act, Indian carriers-Operations, management and performance. Marketing strategies of Air India.
  • Significance of Road Transport in Tourism : Growth and Development of road transport system in India;  State of existing infrastructure; Public and Private Sector involvement; Role of Regional Transport Authority. Approved Travel Agencies, Tour / Transport Operators, Car hire / Rental companies.
  • State and inter – state bus and coach network, Insurance provision road taxes and fitness certificate.
  • Rail Transport Network – Major Railway Systems of World – British Rail, Euro Rail and Amtrak.
  • Types of special package offered by Indian Railways to tourists – Indrail pass, Palace on Wheels and Royal Orient.
  • Reservation procedures. GSAs abroad.
  • Water Transport System in India – Historical past, Cruise ships, Ferries, Hovercraft, River and canal boats, Fly cruise. Future prospects.

Unit – V :

  • Travel Agency and Tour Operations Business : Origin, Growth and development; Definition, Differentiation and linkages; Organisation and functions-Travel information counselling, Itinerary preparation, Reservation, Tour costing / pricing. Marketing of tour packages. Income sources.
  • Airlines Ticketing : Operational perspectives of ticketing – ABC codes, Flight schedules, Flying time and MPM / TPM calculation, TIM ( Travel Information Mannual ) consultation. Routine and itinerary preparation, Types of fare, Fare calculation and rounding – up. Currency conversion and payment modes, Issuance of ticket.
  • Cargo Handling : Baggage allowance, Free access baggage. Weight and piece concept. Accountability of lost baggage, Dangerous goods; Cargo rates and valuation charges, Automation and airport procedures.
  • Requirements for setting – up travel agency and tour operations business, Approval from organisation and institutions concerned. Incentives available in Indian context. Constraints and limitations.

Unit – VI :

  • Marketing : Core concepts in marketing; Needs, Wants, Demands, Products, markets. Marketing management philosophies-Production, Product, Selling, Marketing and societal perspectives. Economic importance of marketing.
  • Tourism marketing : Service characteristics of tourism. Unique features of tourist demand and tourism product / Tourism marketing mix.
  • Analysis and selection of market : Measuring and forecasting tourism demand; Forecasting methods, Managing capacity and demand. Market segmentation and positioning.
  • Developing marketing environment, Consumer buying behaviour. Competitive differentiation and competitive marketing strategies, New product development, product life cycle, Customer satisfaction and related strategies in internal and external marketing; Interactive and relationship marketing.
  • Planning Marketing Programs : Product and product strategies; Product line, Product mix, Branding and packaging. Pricing; considerations, Approaches and strategies. Distribution channels and strategies.
  • Marketing of Tourism Services : Marketing of Airlines, Hotel, Resort, Travel Agencies and other tourism related services – Challenges and strategies.
  • Marketing Skills for Tourism : Creativity – Communication – Self – motivation – Team Building – Personality Development.

Unit – VII :

  • Tourism Planning : Origin, Concept and approaches. Levels and types of tourism planning-Sectoral, Spatial, Integrated, Complex, Centralized and Decentralized. Product life cycle theories and their applicability in tourism planning, Urban and rural tourism planning.
  • Tourism planning and policy perspectives; planning at national, state and regional levels. India’s tourism policies.
  • Tourism Planning Process : Objective setting, Background analysis, Detailed research and analysis, Synthesis, Goal setting and Plan formulation, Evaluation of tourism project-Project feasibility study; Plan implementation, Development and monitoring. Tourism master plan.
  • Tourism impacts and need for sustainable tourism planning : Socio – cultural, Economic and physical, Tourism carrying capacity and environmental impact analysis ( EIA ).
  • Business ethics and laws – their relevance and applicability in Travel and Tourism industry.
  • Law and legislation relating to tourist entry, Stay, Departure, Passport, Visa and Health.
  • Tourist safety and security, Preservation and conservation of heritage environment, Archaeological sites and wildlife.

Unit – VIII :

  • The nature of field techniques; Field techniques and tourism and hotel business; Importance; and Limitations.
  • Research : Meaning; Types; Trends; and challenges with special reference to tourism and hotel business. Guiding principles in selection of research problem.
  • Research Methodology : Meaning; Procedural Guidelines; and Research design.
  • Field Procedure for Data Collection and Analysis Techniques : Nature, sources of data, Techniques of data collection.
  • Frequency Distribution : Meanings; Problems and considerations in construction numerical frequency distributions.
  • Measures of Central tendency and variation.
  • Correlation and regressions analysis.
  • Probability and Probability Distributions :
    1. Probability : Meaning; Definition; and sample points and sample space, Events; Conditional probability; Bayes theorem and probability on large sample space.
    2. Probability Distributions : The binomial model; The poisson model; and Normal distribution.
  • Sampling and Statistical Testing :
    1. Sampling and Sample Designs : Sampling and reasons for sampling; Theoretical basis of sampling; Basic concepts of sampling and types of sampling ( Random and Non-random sampling ). Central Limit theorem.
    2. Statistical Testing : Formulation and general procedure of testing of hypothesis, One – tail test and Two – tail test.
  • Parametric and Non-Parametric Testing :
    1. Testing the Hypothesis : Comparison of two population means; Comparison of two population proportions; and Comparison of two population means and standard deviations.
    2. F – test, Student’s distribution and Chi – square test.

Unit – IX :

  • Management : Concept, Nature, Process and functions. Management levels, Managerial skills and roles. The external environment, Social responsibilities and ethics.
  • Planning : Nature, Purpose, Types ‘and process. Management by objectives strategies and policies. Decision – making, Process, Tools and techniques. Decision – making models.
  • Organising : Concept of organising and organisation. Line and staff, Authority and responsibility, Span of control, Delegation, Decentralization, Conflict and coordination, Organisational structure and design, Management of change. Innovation and organisation development.
  • Directing : Communication-Process, Types, Barriers and principles of effective communication. Motivation – Theories and practices, Leadership – Concept, theories and styles.
  • Controlling : Process, Methods and techniques. Managing international business.
  • Information Systems : Automation of Manual System, Data Processing stages. Evolution from EDP to MIS.
  • MIS : Introduction, Definition, Status, Framework of understanding and designing MIS.
  • Computer Networking : Application of CRS ( Computerized Reservation Systems ) in travel trade and hospitality sector.

Unit – X :

Financial Management and Planning :

Finance : Meaning; Goals; Functions; Importance; and typologies of Finance – Role of financial management, Organisation goals; Environment; Forecasting and financial planning. Break – even analysis.

Management of Current Assets :

  • Working Capital Management : Meaning and characteristics of working capital; Financing current assets. Cash management, Receivables management and inventory management.
  • Management of Fixed Assets; Importance of Capital Budgeting. Analytical Techniques – Non – discounted, Discounted Techniques.

Financial Structures and Management of Earnings :

  • Meaning, Difference between financial and capital structures. Determinants of Financial Structure.
  • Financial leverage and effects of Financial Leverage on Net Income and Shareholders wealth. Financial leverage and financial planning. Break-even analysis for financial leverage. Dividend Policy, Significance of dividend policy and different types of dividend policies.
  • TFCI : Tourism Finance Corporation of India ( TFCI ) – Aims, Objectives, Organisation and Functions.
  • Accounting : Preparation of Business Income Statement, Balance Sheet, Cash flow statement and Fund flow statement. Hotel Accounting.