Code No. : 67
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UGC NET Archaeology Paper II and Paper III ( A ) [ Core Group ]
Unit – I
- Definition, aim and Scope of Archaeology, History and Growth of Archaeology, History of Indian Archaeology.
- Relationship of Archaeology with Social and Natural Sciences.
- Retrieval of Archaeological Data : Techniques of Explorations and Excavations.
- Aims and Methods of Conservation and preservation of Archaeological remains.
- Recording and Preparation of Reports.
Unit – II
- Chronology and Dating : Relative, Stratigraphy, Typology, Absolute, Carbon 14, Potassium Argon, Fission Track, Thermoluminescence, Dendrochronology, Pollen analysis, Varve clay analysis.
- Others – methods : Flourine test, nitrogen and phosphate analysis, soil analysis.
- Methods of Objective Interpretations : Ethno – archaeology, Experimental archaeology, Application of new archaeological methods in India.
Unit – III
- Geological Biological and Cultural Dimension of Man.
- Quaternary Period : Pleistocene and Holocene, Environment and Climatic Changes.
- Pleistocene Flora and Fauna, Main Stages of Human Evolution and important fossil records.
- Appearance of Stone Tools and Development of Technology : Main Techniques and Tools of Stone Age, Methods of study of prehistoric remains.
Unit – IV
- Hunting – Gathering Stage : Palaeolithic in Africa, Europe and South – East Asia, Mesolithic in Europe and West Asia; Palaeolithic and Mesolithic remains and important sites of India.
- Beginning of Food Production : Neolithic Stage in West Asia, Major neolithic cultures and important sites of India.
Unit – V
- Pre and early Harappan Village Cultures of North and North – Western India.
- Harappa Culture : Origin, extent, chronology, factors of urbanization, trade, script, religion, art and craft, factors for the decline.
- Devaluation of Harappa Culture : Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh and Gujarat.
- Chalcolithic village communities of Gujarat, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra.
- Copper using cultures of Gangetic plains.
Unit – VI
- Early occurrence of iron : Chrono – Cultural Features.
- Main Characteristics of the Cultures : Painted grey ware, Black slipped ware and Megalithic cultures.
- Northern Black polished ware culture : Extent, chronology, characteristics traits.
- Important city sites : Raj ghat, Ujjain, Vaisali, Taxila, Mathura, Sravasti, Kaushambi and Sishupalgarh.
- Important sites of historical period : Sringverapur, Khairadih, Satanikota, Chandraketugarh, Nasik, Arikamedu and Adam.
Unit – VII
- Architecture of Structural Stupas : North and South India.
- Rock – cut Architecture : Monastries and Shrines.
- Main styles of temples : Origin and development of temples, Main features and examples of Nagar, Vesara and Dravid styles.
- Main Styles of Sculptural Art : Mauryan, Sunga, Kushana, Gupta, Satvahana, Chalukya, Pallava and Chola periods.
Unit – VIII
- Origin and antiquity of coinage in India. Techniques of manufacturing coins.
- Important Coins : Punch – marked coins, inscribed and uninscribed caste coins; Principal types of Indo – Greek coinage; Saka and Kushan coinage; Principal types of Gupta Gold coinage; Brief account of pre – Islamic Medieval Indian coinage.
Unit – IX
- Origin and antiquity of writing in India : Origin of Brahmi and Kharasthi scripts, Study of some select inscriptions – Ashokan edicts, Besnagar Garuda pillar inscription; Hathigumpha inscription of Kharvela, Junagarh inscription of Rudradaman, Allahabad pillar inscription of Samudragupta, Aihole pillar inscription of Pulakesin II and Gwalior inscription of Mihira Bhoja.
Unit – X
- Proposed area of research; aims and objectives; proposed methodology; primary and secondary sources; review of previous researches in the proposed area, and likely contribution of the proposal.
UGC NET Archaeology Paper III ( B ) [ Elective / Optional ]
Elective – I
- Geo – Chronology and Stone Age Cultures of India : Sohan Valley; Belan Valley; Son Valley and Kortlayar Valley.
- Palaeolithic Cultures of India : Sohan and Acheulian traditions; Middle Palaeolithic cultures; Upper Palaeolithic cultures; Habitation tendencies of the Palaeolithic period.
- Patterns of Mesolithic Cultures of India : Characteristic features of alluvial plains; horse – shoe lake; sand – dune; plateau and rock shelter sites.
- Neolithic Cultures of India : Early farming communities of Baluchistan and Kashmir, Vindhya – Belan region, Kaimur Foot hills and Ganga plains, Chota Nagpur plateau and the North – East, and Pastoral communities of Deccan and South.
Elective – II
- Pre – Harappan Cultures of India and Border Lands : Salient features.
- Harappa Culture : Origin, Geographical Distribution and Settlement Patterns, Town Planning and Architecture, Trade – Hinterland and Overseas, Arts and Crafts, Material Equipment, Subsistence Pattern, Socio – Political Organization, Religion and Authorship; important excavated sites, concepts of Sorath and Sindhi Harappans in Gujarat
- Decline and Survival of Harappa Culture : Causes of de – urbanization, Late Harappa cultures of Punjab, Haryana, Western Uttar Pradesh and Gujarat.
- Other Copper using Cultures : Copper Hoards and Ochre Coloured pottery, Ahar, Kayatha, Malwa and Deccan Chalcolithic cultures, Cultures of Gangetic Plains.
Elective – III
- Historical Urbanization : Northern Black polished Ware Culture, Extent, Chronology, Cultural traits.
- Important City Sites : Rajghat, Ujjain, Vaishali, Taxila, Mathura, Sravasti, Kaushambi, Sishupalgarh, Satanikota.
- Growth of urban settlements during Kushan Period : Plan and Expansion of Settlements and growth of trade centres; Main features of material culture.
- Excavated remains of Gupta and Early Medieval Periods : Nature of settlements and main features of material culture.
Elective – IV
- Structural features of ancient fortified settlements.
- Origin and evolution of Stupa architecture: Sanchi, Bharhut, Amaravati and Nagarjuna Konda.
- Development of Rock – cut Architecture : Chaityas and Viharas.
- Origin and evolution of temples; Gupta temples; Chalukyan temples; Pallava rathas and temples; Khajuraho temples; temples of Orissa and Chola temples.
- Mauryan Capital figures; Early Yaksha Statue; Sunga Sculptures; Kaushana sculptures : Mathura and Gandhara schools; Gupta Sculptures: Sarnath School; Sculptures of Chalukyas; Pallavas; Palas; Chola and Chandellas.
- Rock – cut Cave Paintings of Ajanta and Bagh.
Elective – V
- Epigraphy as a source of history, Origin of Indian Scripts : Different theories Study of select Epigraphs : Asokan Edicts; Rock Edicts X, XII, XIII; Lumbini inscriptions of Asoka; Minar Rock Edict of Bairat, Besnagar Garud Pillar inscription; Hathigumpha inscription of Kharvela; Junagarh inscription of Rudradaman; Swat Relic casket inscription; Sarnath Buddha image inscription of the time of Kanishka I.
- Lucknow Museum Jain image inscription of the time of Huvishka ( 126 AD ); Allahabad pillar inscription of Samudragupta; Aihole pillar inscription of Pulakesin II; Gwalior inscriptions of Mihira Bhoja; Tanjavaur inscription of Rajendra Chola and Sangli Copper plate of Govinda IV ( Swarn Varsha ).
- Origin and antiquity of coinage in ancient India. Metal and techniques used for coins.
Main Coin Types :
- Punch – marked Coins; inscribed and Uninscribed caste coins; Principal types of Indo – Greek Coinage; Coins of Saka, Kushan and Satvahana; Principal types of Gupta Gold coins; Roman coins; and brief account of pre – Islamic Medieval Indian coinage.